Tuesday, September 21, 2021

Types of Addresses in TCP/IP Protocol | Physical Address | Logical Address | Port Address | Specific Address


Types of Address

There are four types of addresses used in TCP/IP Protocol Suite.


Figure: Types of Addresses in TCP/IP Model

Physical Address

The physical address is the lowest level address and is also referred as link address. The physical address of a node is defined by its LAN. The physical address is included in the frame by the data link layer. Physical Address is 48 bits address. First 24 bits is decided by OUI and Lase 24 bits is decided by Vendor/Manufacturer of device.


Figure: Example of Physical Address

At data link layer, the frame contains physical addresses in the header. The data link layer at sender receives data from upper layer, encapsulates the data in a frame, adds a header.

Figure: Working of Physical Address

Only the station having matched address with destination address accepts the frames. The frame is checked, the header is removed and remove data encapsulation and deliver to upper layer.

Logical Address

Logical addresses are independent of underlying physical networks.

Figure: Example of Logical Address

It is a 32-bit address which uniquely defines host connected to Internet. The physical addresses change from hop to hop, but the logical address usually remains the same.

Figure: Working of Logical Address

Since different networks can have different address formats hence a universal address system is required which can identify each host uniquely of underlying physical networks. Logical addresses are necessary for universal communications.


Port Address

The IP addresses are necessary for data to travel from source to destination. But a communication process involves TELNET and FTP which requires addresses.

Figure: Types of Port Address

Port is communication end point. Use of port address (port number) is to process to process communication in network. Port address is 16 bit address.

Figure: Working of Port Address

In TCP/IP architecture, the label assigned to a process is called port address. In TCP/IP the port address is of 16-bit.


Specific Address

Specific addresses are designed by users for some applications. 

For example, www.facebook.com

It is the example of Universal Resource Locator (URL). It is used is used to find a document on the world wide web.

Figure: Exampel of URL

Another example, xyz@gmail.com. It is the example of e-mail address. Email is used send text and multimedia files over internet to particular user.

Figure: Example of Email Address

The specific addresses get changed to corresponding port and logical addresses by the station or host who sends it.

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