Tuesday, December 7, 2021

TCP/IP Model | TCP/IP Protocol Suite | 4 layer Internet Model | Protocol and Services of TCP/IP Model

Introduction of TCP/IP Model

The internet architecture, which is also sometimes called the TCP/IP architecture its two main protocols. It stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol.

TCP/IP is four-layer system. Layers of TCP/IP are Application layer, Transport layer, Internet layer and Host to network layer. Host to network layer is called physical and data-link layer in OSI model. Internet layer is called network layer in OSI model. The application layer in TCP/IP model is combination of application, presentation and session layer of OSI model.

Figure: Prootcol and Services of TCP/IP Model

TCP is connection-oriented protocol and IP is connectionless protocol. Application program sends data to the transport layer protocols TCP and UDP. Routing of packet takes place in internet layer. Transmitting IP datagram using host to network protocol. TCP/IP model does not define any specific protocol in host to network layer.

Application Layer

Application layer includes all process and services that use transport layer to deliver data. The most widely known application protocols are: TELNET, File Transfer Protocol (FTP), Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) and Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). TELENT is the Network Terminal Protocol, which provides remote login over the network. FTP is used for interactive file transfer. SMTP delivers the electronic mail.

Transport Layer

Application program sends data to the transport layer protocols TCP and UDP. An application is designed to choose either TCP or UDP based in the service it needs. Transport layer provides process to process delivery in the network. TCP is reliable and connection-oriented protocol. It delivers data without error from one PC to another PC. It converts incoming bytes into discrete message. At the receiver side TCP reassembles the received data or massage into bytes format. TCP also handles flow control. UDP is a connection less protocol. Sometimes this type of protocol is used for fast delivery. UDP cannot handle flow control or error checking.

Internet Layer

The internet layer protocol (IP, IGMP, ICMP, ARP) handle machine to machine communication. This layer protocols moves data from one host to another; even if the host are on different networks. It attaches a header to datagram that includes source address and the destination address, both of which are unique internet addresses. It provides connection less method of delivering data from one host to another. The primary protocol used to move data is the Internet protocol (IP), which provides the following services.

Addressing: Determining the route to deliver data to the destination host.

Fragmentation: breaking the messages into pieces if an intervening network cannot handle a large message.

Host to Network Layer

This layer is called network interface layer. All the physical media connected at host to network layer. This layer is same as physical and data link layer of OSI model. Host to Network layer cannot define any protocol, but provides services based on switching and routing. Ex, ATM, Frame Relay, Token Ring. It is responsible for accepting and transmitting IP datagram.

Compare of OSI Model and TCP/IP Model

Figure: Comparison of OSI and TCP/IP Model

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